south african secret police during apartheid

These included: The SAP was eligible for the British King's Police Medal, which was awarded annually throughout the British Empire. It functioned as a paramilitary hit squad,[12] capturing political opponents of the National Party government and either "turning" or executing them. During the apartheid regime, South Africa became a police state. Another reserve (volunteer) force was established in 1966, consisting of unpaid, mostly White civilians willing to perform limited police duties. Tricks of the trade included rape, torture and killings. At the same time, many South Africans feared that the police were causing some of the criminal and political violence, and they demanded immediate changes in the police force to mark the end of apartheid-era injustices. [3]:438, The 19 May 1969 saw the introduction of the Security Services Special Account Bill and that would pass into law on 16 June 1969, and saw the use of money allocated to BOSS as confidential and not subjected to an audit by the Auditor-General as with other government departments. It was added to several times over the years: For the former police force in Rhodesia, see, Flag of the South African Police (1981–1994), Learn how and when to remove these template messages, Learn how and when to remove this template message, South African Police Star for Distinguished Leadership, South African Police Star for Distinguished Service, South African Police Silver Cross for Gallantry, South African Police Star for Outstanding Service, South African Police Medal for Combating Terrorism, South African Police Seventy-Fifth Anniversary Commemorative Medal, South African Police Service Amalgamation Medal, South African Police Star for Faithful Service, South African Police Medal for Faithful Service, List of law enforcement agencies in South Africa, https://www.c-span.org/video/?56323-1/south-african-election-special-2, INTERPOL MEMBERSHIP – HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE, ACCOUNTABILITY IN NAMIBIA Human Rights And The Transition To Democracy, "Commissioners of the South African Police (1913–1994)", https://abs-isd-police.weebly.com/about.html, "The Role of Political Violence in South Africa's Democratisation", Truth and Reconciliation – The Voice of 'Prime Evil', https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=South_African_Police&oldid=1001596838, Defunct law enforcement agencies of South Africa, Wikipedia articles needing reorganization from February 2015, Articles needing additional references from February 2015, All articles needing additional references, Articles lacking in-text citations from February 2014, Articles with multiple maintenance issues, Pages using law enforcement agency with local civilian police general nature, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 1913–1928: Sir Theodorus Gustaff Truter, colonel, 1940–1945: George Robson Carruthers Baston, brigadier, 1945–1951: Robert John Palmer, major general, 1951–1954: Jan-Kamas Brink, major general, 1954–1960: Corrie I. Rademeyer, major general, 1960–1962: Hendrik Jacobus du Plooy, lieutenant general, 1962–1968: Johannes Martinus Keevy, lieutenant general, 1978–1983: Michiel Christian Wilhelm Geldenhuys, general, This page was last edited on 20 January 2021, at 11:37. Botha was looking for an alternative to the policing function of BOSS as well as an alternative to a military view of intelligence, one which would provide long-term strategic intelligence to the government about the southern African region and world. A youth wing of this reserve force reported that it had inducted almost 3,000 students and young people to assist the police during the late 1980s.[14]. Potgieter, of The Appellate Division of the Sup", "An abridged version of the security report by Justice H.J. Because Kagiso, the township of Krugersdorp, was a small community during the 1970s, the security officers also knew the families of the “troublemakers” and threatened them with arrests and detentions. Apartheid . Many South African police officers might be considered “accidental officers”. F or a child growing up in Soweto, South Africa, in 1976, apartheid was an abstract concept. [3]:436, By March 1969, the skeleton of a new security service began to emerge with the release of the expenditures for 1969-70 when R5,320,500 was allocated to the secret services, a 188 percent increase over the previous year with R4,063,000 allocated to the Prime Minister's office and Van den Bergh. Abstract PIP: Male dominated power systems in South Africa coupled with a culture of aggression and domination have not allowed for the mainstream emergence of qualities such as trust, compassion, and gentleness, frequently associated with female virtues. The agents have claimed that the Z-Squad killed dissidents through letter bombs and snipers. Black citizens were displaced and saw some of their villages destroyed forcing them … The police increased the use of part-time, specialised personnel – such as the special constables (called kitskonstabels (instant constables) in Afrikaans) – to help quell the growing violence in the 1980s. 70) of 1965 empowered the police to search without warrant any person, receptacle, vehicle, aircraft, or premise within one mile of any national border and to seize anything found during such a search. Specialized courses include crowd and riot control, detective skills, horsemanship and veterinary training, and advanced-level management skills. Among the SAP's spies during the apartheid era was the infamous Craig Williamson and his best-known female recruit Olivia Forsyth. Police took direct action, including opening fire on demonstrators. The key players in this alleged scheme were former agents of the Rhodesian secret police, ... had been working simultaneously for South Africa. [11], In 1983, the SAP formed C1, a counter-insurgency unit commanded by police colonel and former Koevoet operator Eugene de Kock. This film explores South Africa's apartheid policy, focusing on issues such as race relations, political practices, and segregated dwellings. [1], During the middle of 1968, the South African cabinet approved the implementation of a centralised security service and on 28 August of the same year, General Hendrik van den Bergh was instructed to start planning the new organisation. He increased the recruitment of black police personnel, formed a civilian riot-control unit that was separate from the SAP but worked with it, developed a code of police conduct agreed upon by a number of political parties and communities, and substantially increased police training facilities. A finger printing office was established in Pietermaritzburg in 1900, a year before Britain’s Scotland Yard followed suit, and by 1925 several offices had mushroomed, necessitating the creation of the South African Criminal Bureau. (Some volunteering and been called up more frequently.) Security guards in South Africa clashing with police during a 96-day strike of private security personnel in 2006. Members of the South Africa's Mine Workers Union sing the old apartheid-era national anthem while demonstrating against affirmative action at a … [1] The Bureau for State Security was then renamed the Department of National Security (DONS) on 1 September 1978. Public amenities could not be shared among different races. KwaZulu, Lebowa, QwaQwa, Transkei, and Venda, and was renamed the South African Police Service. In some circumstances, the police were also authorised to serve as vehicle inspectors, postal agents, and local court personnel. [3]:437 Military Intelligence's (MI) budget was reduced from R830,000 the previous year to a R39,000 a which would lead to continuous struggle for power between MI and BOSS throughout the seventies. [3]:114, Police officials often called on the army for support in emergencies. The Europeans in South Africa were responsible for establishing apartheid in the 20th century. Thereafter they formed part of the new South African honours system. South Africa : the rise and fall of apartheid / Nancy L. Clark and William H. Worger. [3]:114 During World War I, the SAP took over the Riflemen's jurisdiction, and most Riflemen personnel were transferred to the SAP by the end of the 1910s. The police could legally serve as wardens, court clerks, and messengers, as well as immigration, health, and revenue officials. Today there is only one Police College to train new recruits in Pretoria. They were formed either to carry out a specific task or to deal with a particular area of crime. This action, which escalated into a full-scale undeclared war and had received neither approval nor discussion from the Cabinet, prompted further outrage at the organization. [2]:Chp3, In October 1978, Deputy Defence and Intelligence Minister Kobie Coetsee was appointed by Prime Minister P.W. Abstract PIP: Male dominated power systems in South Africa coupled with a culture of aggression and domination have not allowed for the mainstream emergence of qualities such as trust, compassion, and gentleness, frequently associated with female virtues. Botha had decided to split the intelligence gathering ability of South Africa amongst four agencies, the DMI, BOSS/DONS, Security Branch and Foreign Affairs, hoping to reduce the political dominance by one over the others, but the rivalry would continue. Muller introduced the framework of the new service in the Public Service Amendment Bill which he said was responsible for co-ordination and would draw personnel from other security and intelligence organisations. In 2012, Ramaphosa, a wealthy businessman before becoming president, encouraged police to end a wildcat strike at the Marikana Mine. After South Africa became a republic (in 1961), the government instituted an entirely new series of decorations and medals for the SAP. It is the name given to the particular racial-social ideology developed in South Africa during the twentieth century. [2]:105 The SAP originally policed cities and urban areas, while the South African Mounted Riflemen, a branch of the Union Defence Force, enforced the state's writ in rural areas. Apartheid—Afrikaans for “apartness”—kept the country’s majority black population For most people, the police were the face of apartheid representing force against the majority of the South African population, without whose consent the state ruled. Kasrils and others in the ANC operated more clandestinely, as one of the major nerve centers for global organizing against apartheid that grew in the 1970s and exploded in the 1980s, with multiracial … training at Maleoskop (now closed) in specialised weapons and "bush warfare" in preparation for their 3 months "call up". During South Africa's apartheid era, several anti-apartheid activists died in police custody or under mysterious circumstances, but their deaths have gone largely uninvestigated in the courts. 1 review Winter blows the whistle on his career as a journalist working for the South African intelligence forces during the Apartheid years. People “fell” from high buildings while in the Police’s care. [3]:438 A Government Notice No. South African police beat black women with clubs after anti-apartheid protesters raided and set a beer hall on fire in Durban, South Africa in 1959. The unit consisted of 41 divisions, and proved detrimental to preventing potentially thousands of killings during major political violence. The South African Police were the successors to the police forces of the Cape Colony, the Natal Colony, the Orange River Colony, and the Transvaal Colony in law enforcement in South Africa. [1], The organisational structure of BOSS is said to have been composed of the following departments:[2]:Chp2, In the wake of the Information scandal (known as Muldergate) in which the Bureau of State Security (BOSS) had become mired, the head of the BOSS, Hendrik van den Berg, resigned in June 1978 and was replaced by Alec van Wyk. C1 was run out of a secluded farmhouse called Vlakplaas until 1992. [13], The Police Reserve, established in 1973, enabled the government to recall former police personnel for active duty for thirty to ninety days each year, and for additional service in times of emergency. Kasrils and others in the ANC operated more clandestinely, as one of the major nerve centers for global organizing against apartheid that grew in the 1970s and exploded in the 1980s, with multiracial … 1. The basic police training regimen includes courses in criminal investigation procedures, self-defense, musketry, tactical weapons training, drills, inspections, public relations and law. South African police have made important strides to achieving democratic policing and the South African people have acknowledged such progress through their acceptance of the new South African Police Service. A scandal was the main reason for its replacement by NIS in 1980. This unit is still in action in modern-day South Africa. The Vlakplaas farm became the site of multiple executions of political opponents of the apartheid government. [2]:Chp4 It was believed that it was predetermined that the DMI would be the lead intelligence agency. The South African Secret Service (SASS) was the previous name of a South African intelligence agency.Currently, it is known as the Foreign Branch of the State Security Agency.It is responsible for all non-military foreign intelligence and for counterintelligence within the Service itself. In 1992 Kriel began restructuring the SAP into a three-tiered force consisting of a national police, primarily responsible for internal security and for serious crime; autonomous regional forces, responsible for crime prevention and for matters of general law and order; and municipal police, responsible for local law enforcement and for minor criminal matters. The Police Amendment Act (No. Thereafter, in 1963, the Republican intelligence was born from where BOSS was created on May 1st 1969. Policemen and women were eligible for a number of awards. Apartheid–South Africa–History. From 1948 through the 1990s, a single word dominated life in South Africa. Members of the South Africa's Mine Workers Union sing the old apartheid-era national anthem while demonstrating against affirmative action at a march in downtown Johannesburg Friday, Oct. 20, 1995. Alarmed by the increased political violence and crime in the mid-1980s and by the lack of adequate police support, officials then increased the size of the police force to 93,600—a ratio of 2.7 per 1,000 people—by 1991. The police were heavily armed after that, especially when facing unruly or hostile crowds. The SAP originally policed cities and urban … A total of 69 unarmed blacks were killed by the police during that protest. In 1987, for example, the police recruited almost 9,000 kitskonstabels and gave them an intensive six-week training course. C1 was also responsible for several fatal bomb attacks against anti-apartheid activists, including members of the African National Congress. In addition to the 300 prosecutions that the authorities have ignored, there are a further 1,200 cases of people who went missing during the apartheid era when South African police … Amazingly she's still alive and shown at the end of this beautiful and intense drama about racism. This followed another senior African National Congress (ANC) member and former minister Derek Hanekom also filing a defamation lawsuit against Zuma for calling him “a known enemy agent” on Twitter. Even with training courses extended to three months, their often brutal and inept performance contributed to the growing hostility between the police and the public by the late 1980s. The movement gained popularity and grew after news of police killing unarmed protesters in South Africa. Proclamation 18 formed the South African Police on 1 April 1913 with the amalgamation of the police forces of the four old colonies after the founding of the Union of South Africa in 1910. In 1996 the combined active and reserve police represented a police-to-population ratio of almost 4.0 per 1,000. Opposition to apartheid manifested in a variety of ways, including boycotts, non-violent protests, and armed resistance. Throughout this time, police reserves numbered at least 37,000. Naude has has been on the witness stand for two days, testifying at … While this is understandable, it has blinded scholars to profound changes. [10], On 21 March 1960, SAP officers in the Transvaal township of Sharpeville opened fire on a large anti-apartheid protest outside of the local police station, killing 69 demonstrators and injuring 180 others. Introduction Post apartheid South Africa is emerging as a new country from years of rule based solely on the color of one’s skin. Since 1990, South Africa also has provided training for police from Lesotho, Swaziland, Malawi and the (then) Zaire. From 1923, the SAP also had its own long service medal, which doubled as a medal for gallantry. [2]:Chp2, BOSS was actively involved in South Africa's foreign policy. On 20 November 1978, the Bureau of State Security was brought under tighter control as a cabinet portfolio called National Security managed by Prime Minister who also held the Minister of Defence portfolio. [2]:Chp4 He viewed Foreign Affairs as too overt and tainted by the Information Scandal and therefore saw a need to organise BOSS into a new agency based around research and analysis and removed its old covert operational function and transferred that to the Security Branch of the police. From 1961 to 1990, a total of 67 people died in South African Police detention from hanging and torture as well as natural causes as claimed by the Police. In March 1960 police fired upon a crowd protesting peacefully against the pass laws in Sharpeville, killing at … [3]:438 BOSS' function was stated as investigating matters of state security, collect and evaluate any information received and distribute the analysis when necessary throughout the government and secondly but more ambiguously, perform other functions and responsibilities when required. Rape under such circumstances is the assertion of male power, and, as expected, the numbers of rape cases … [2]:Chp4, "Prime Minister John Vorster appoints a Commission of Inquiry under Justice H.J. We based our discussion on Feld’s (2010) article American Jews and the Struggle Over Apartheid. After the war, the South African Police joined INTERPOL on 1 January 1948.[4][5]. [2]:Chp2 The Potgieter Commission reported back on the 2 February 1972 and the results were subsequently used to enact the Security Intelligence and State Security Council Act 64 of 1972 on 24 May 1972. After South Africa's transition to majority rule in 1994, the SAP was reorganised into the South African Police Service (SAPS). In response to this systemic racism, a group of exiled South Africans living in England called for a boycott of products from the country. Protesters flee as police charge during riots in Cape Town in 1976. 7) of 1958 broadened the mission of the SAP beyond conventional police functions, such as maintaining law and order and investigating and preventing crime and gave the police extraordinary powers to quell unrest and to conduct counterinsurgency activities. The medals available to the SAP between 1923 and 1963 were thus: Until 1952, they were incorporated into the British honours system. 2. And state violence to maintain order and enforce labor demands has not disappeared. To meet the new challenges, the 91,000 active police personnel in 1991, including administrative and support personnel, were increased to more than 110,000 by 1993 and 140,000 by 1995. 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