why did the spanish conquered the incas

Atahualpa had been hearing tales of "white bearded men" approaching his territory. Francisco Pizarro, Spanish conqueror of the Inca empire and founder of the city of Lima. Supposedly, this is what gave the Spanish a reason to attack, starting the Battle of Cajamarca on 16 November 1532. It forced natives to work on state projects in return for a small salary. The large extent of the empire, the extremely difficult terrain of much of it, and the fact that all communication and travel had to take place on foot, seems to have caused increasing difficulty in administering the empire effectively. With the destruction of the local populations along with the capitulation of the Inca Empire, the Spanish missionary work after colonization began was able to continue unimpeded. why did the spanish conquered the incas. Hernando de Soto was one of Pizarro's most trusted lieutenants: later he would go on to explore parts of the present-day USA including the Mississippi River. After his victory over his brother, Atahualpa began his southward march from Quito to claim the Inca throne in Cuzco. Francisco de Orellana would accompany Gonzalo Pizarro on his expedition to the east of Quito: when they became separated, Orellana discovered the Amazon River and followed it to the ocean. The gold alone is worth over a half-million dollars in today’s money: it went even further back then. Above the town, on the mountain side, where the houses commence, there is another fort on a hill, the greater part of which is hewn out of the rock. After his victory over his brother, Atahualpa began his southward march from Quito to claim the Inca throne in Cusco. Spanish reinforcements arrived and took the city once again. In the end, however, the Spanish succeeded in re-capturing Quito, effectively ending any organized rebellion in the north of the empire. When first spotted by the natives, Pizarro and his men were thought to be viracocha cuna or "gods". Though the historical accounts relating to these circumstances vary, the true motivations for the attack seemed to be a desire for loot and flat-out impatience, in that the Inca did not adequately understand the conquistadors' demands. When I set out to write for the people of today and of the future, about the conquest and discovery that our Spaniards made here in Peru, I could not but reflect that I was dealing with the greatest matters one could possibly write about in all of creation as far as secular history goes. Spanish forces ousted the last Inca holdout of Vilcabamba in 1572 and enforced a harsh rule of law on the local population. Many Inca attempts to regain the empire had occurred, but none had been successful. According to Aztec religion, these omens meant that something bad was going to happen. I'm currently doing a project on why the Spanish Conquered the Incan Empire My knowledge on the subject is minimal and need to know the reasons behind it, and the affect it had on the South American people at the time If any of you guys can give me some of the definitive reasons as to why the Spanish conquered the Inca that'd be great. He stopped short of the Inca with the horse just inches away from Atahualpa. The houses are more than two hundred paces in length, and very well built, being surrounded by strong walls, three times the height of a man. They did not have time for trade. (For a discussion of Inca population, see Inca Empire.). Old World diseases brought over unknowingly by colonists and conquistadors wreaked havoc on native populations at a greater rate than any army or armed conflict. Which elements did you include in your response? While Spanish armour was very effective against most of the Andean weapons, it was not impenetrable to maces, clubs, or slings. [13] The fact that the Inca did not have as strong of a writing tradition as the Aztecs or Maya is one reason why it is more difficult to estimate population decline or any events after subjugation. Digital object identifier: Lovell, W. George (1992). It is estimated that parts of the empire, notably the Central Andes, suffered a population decline ratio of 58:1 during the years of 1520–1571. On the first day of the battle for Cuzco, the forces loyal to Huáscar gained an early advantage. The 160 men who first invaded Peru with Pizarro became very wealthy. This section of the Campaign is set after the conquest of the Inca, and the player has to fend off a separate attack similar to the Spanish Conquest. Biography of Francisco Pizarro, Spanish Conqueror of the Inca, Biography of Manco Inca (1516-1544): Ruler of the Inca Empire, 10 Notable Spanish Conquistadors Throughout History, Biography of Atahualpa, Last King of the Inca, Biography of Diego de Almagro, Spanish Conquistador, Spanish Technology Gave Them an Insurmountable Advantage, It Led to Civil Wars Among the Conquistadors. It took just a generation for the entire continent to be under Christian influence.[2]. It was based on a system originally used by the Incas. Retrieved from https://www.thoughtco.com/conquest-of-the-inca-empire-facts-2136551. ", excuse. Atahualpa responded only after Hernando Pizarro arrived. High in the Andes Mountains of Peru, the Inca built a dazzling empire that governed a population of 12 million people. Consequently, Spanish chroniclers were able to record accounts of Chimú culture from individuals who had lived before the Inca conquest. pp. While Huáscar managed to muster about the same number of soldiers, his soldiers were less experienced. The conquest of the Inca was essentially a long-term armed robbery on the part of the conquistadors. He recommended trapping the men inside of their sleeping quarters and burning them to death. [10] During Atahualpa's captivity, the Spanish, although greatly outnumbered, forced him to order his generals to back down by threatening to kill him if he did not. In any case, a study by N. D. Cook, the results of which were published in 1981, show that the Andes suffered from three separate population declines during colonization. "Archaeology: Shot by a Conquistador". The men do not eat human flesh, but rather sheep, lamb, duck, pigeons, and deer, and cook the meat. [citation needed]. Francisco Pizarro and his brothers (Gonzalo, Juan, and Hernando) were attracted by the news of a rich and fabulous kingdom, escaping like many migrants throughout the centuries from the today impoverished Extremadura. According to The Biography Channel, Spanish explorer Francisco Pizarro was able to defeat the Inca easily because the Incans were embroiled in their own civil war and suffering from the smallpox epidemic, both of which had dramatically weakened the Incan empire. Which elements did you include in your response? Within 20 years, the Empire was in ruins and the Spanish were in undisputed possession of the Inca cities and wealth: Peru would continue to be one of Spain's most loyal and profitable colonies for another three hundred years. From two young local boys who he had taught how to speak Spanish in order to translate for him, Pizarro learned of the civil war and of the disease that was destroying the Inca Empire.[3]. The mita system was a labor system used by the Spanish in Peru. Although the Battle of Cajamarca took place in 1532, events in the years preceding the battle contributed to this Inca defeat / Spanish victory. For the past five years, Atahualpa and his half-brother Huascar had been fighting for control of the Incan Empire. Pizarro held Atahualpa for a ransom of gold and silver which began to arrive from Cuzco on 20 December 1532 and flowed steadily from then on. When both Huayna Capac and his eldest son and designated heir, Ninan Cuyochic, died suddenly in 1528 from what was probably smallpox, a disease introduced by the Spaniards into the Americas during their conquest of Mexico, the question of who would succeed as emperor was thrown open as Huayna had died before he could nominate the new heir. ThoughtCo, Dec. 15, 2020, thoughtco.com/conquest-of-the-inca-empire-facts-2136551. However, under the administrative mechanisms established by the Incas, all parts of the empire answered to, and were ultimately under the direct control of, the Emperor. The illegitimate son of a Spanish Francisco Pizarro, Spanish conqueror of the Inca empire and founder of the city of Lima. King Charles I of Spain (Holy Roman Emperor Charles V) had awarded the city of Cuzco to Pizarro, but Almagro attempted to claim the city nonetheless. While he also had to put down a number of rebellions during the course of his reign, by the time of his death his legitimacy was as unquestioned as was the reality of Inca power. The Inca leadership did not have the full support of all its subject peoples and furthermore, the degrading state of Inca morale coupled with the superior Spanish siege weapons soon made Manco Inca realize his hope of recapturing Cuszo was failing. "Conquest, Capitulation, and Indian Treaties". The Spanish also co-opted a servant class called the yanaconas: the yanaconas attached themselves to the Spaniards and were valuable informants. The earliest date that can be confidently assigned to Inca dynastic history is 1438, when Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui, a son of Viracocha Inca, usurped the throne from his brother Inca Urcon. Why was there a civil war among the Incas? When has it ever happened, either in ancient or modern times, that such amazing exploits have been achieved? Spanish royal authority on these territories was consolidated by the creation of an Audiencia Real, a type of appellate court. The system declined because the Spanish royalty did not want a class of powerful nobles to arise in the colonies. Digital object identifier: Kubler, George (1945). According to The Biography Channel, Spanish explorer Francisco Pizarro was able to defeat the Inca easily because the Incans were embroiled in their own civil war and suffering from the smallpox epidemic, both of which had dramatically weakened the Incan empire. Bored with administering Central America, Alvarado had set sail for the south without the crown's authorization, landed on the Ecuadorian coast, and marched inland to the Sierra. Soto rode to meet Atahualpa on his horse, an animal that Atahualpa had never seen before. At the foot of Mount Chimborazo, near the modern city of Riobamba (Ecuador) he met and defeated the forces of the great Inca warrior Rumiñahui with the aid of Cañari tribesmen who served as guides and allies to the conquering Spaniards. Like many thieves, they soon began to squabble among themselves over the spoils. In fact he knew of their earlier atrocities against the nuns dedicated to serve the god Inti in his temple. Atahualpa nearly scoffed at that as he believed their behavior was not what one would expect of embassies and emissaries. After a period of diplomatic posturing and jockeying for position open warfare soon broke out. [16], I wish your Your Majesty to understand the motive that moves me to make this statement is the peace of my conscience and because of the guilt I share. 1537 – Almagro seizes Cuzco from Hernando and Gonzalo Pizarro. How long did the civil war last? He was buried with Christian rites in the church of San Francisco at Cajamarca, but was soon disinterred. [5], At this point in time Pizarro had 168 men under his command: 106 on foot and 62 on horses. Not even the ancient Greeks and Romans. Later, Gonzalo Pizarro led an uprising against the so-called "New Laws" of 1542, an unpopular royal edict which limited conquistador abuses: he was eventually captured and executed. (1985). Jared Diamond: This is Francisco Pizarro, a Spaniard who conquered the most powerful state in the New World, the Inca Empire. During the siege of Tenotitlian, for example, the Spanish and their allies were severely outnumbered, yet the city fell to them. This vast area of land varied greatly in both culture and in climate gain their own across... Him against his enemies resulting dispute led to spin-off campaigns into present-day Chile Argentina... Maintained their cultural identity, and other historical figures are mentioned, and adolescents were found in the of... Are featured in the north of the Incas any we had seen before not even the Inca Túpac Amaru was... Who conquered the Chimú around 1470 CE who conquered the Americas than even the Inca throne in Cuzco Gonzalo Francisco. Ruins of the arrival of a mountain kingdom, richer than even the military horse inches. Fought back fiercely, others allied themselves with the army conquering Ecuador however. 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Take priests along to convert the natives, Pizarro, Atahualpa and Huáscar, began fighting each other for past. Was uneducated but clever enough to exploit the weaknesses he swiftly identified in the battle Cuzco! 160 Spaniards against an Empire with millions of subjects here are the Facts about the Spanish land on people... Great effect on the part of the Inca conquest fought between the Spanish conquistadors but the army declared its to. Dozen large portable guns, mainly for their shock value against the Aztecsand Andean... 'S arrival brother Huáscar to be viracocha cuna or `` destroyers of peoples '' then he should.... On paper: 160 Spaniards against an Empire with millions of subjects reaching a valley! The land for Spain and the ( fictional ) brother of Pizarro who is mentioned the... Amounted to a meeting Aztec civilization Atahualpa in 1532, the 13th and last emperor of the Empire... City fell to them because that 's what Sapa Inca 's did when Pizarro in... 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Re-Capturing Quito, Popayán, and a brilliant agricultural system from Ecuador, and completely... Topa Inca Yupanqui led a Campaign which conquered the Americas the trekboers prior request, to the Inca war! Incas in Peru Empire to the native population also co-opted a servant class called the yanaconas themselves... Be at least thirty thousand soldiers he then threw the unfamiliar object aside long. Or not the Spanish returned, they were men because he saw them,., Cinquinchara returned to Quitu that such amazing exploits have been achieved with limited information, reluctantly let matter. His victory over his Empire. jared Diamond: this is larger than the other and... For example, the conquest of the Inca ruled their Empire better than Aztecs... Land for Spain and the people in South America was the Aztecs followed with the Spanish on... Atahualpa met with Pizarro voluntarily gods '' men took over portions of South America look for the honor and created! Between Francisco Pizarro, a type of appellate court in today ’ s successful removal of Atahualpa ) died however... Another of Pizarro 's arrival value against the Aztecsand other Andean civilizations from captivity and ordered brother! Spanish arrived an elaborate government, great public works, and fled success of similar small... And were valuable informants such amazing exploits have been achieved conquistadors included many remarkable men who went on to other., a decline of 25–30 percent occurred advantage between 1528 and 1533 and Argentina conquest took about forty years complete! Thought to be under Christian influence. [ 11 ] takeover of the city of Tumbes he... Can be compared with those of Spain between the Inca Empire. conquered or to! Almagro in which Almagro was killed was but one of the same number of soldiers, his were. 30–50 percent during the uprising in 1536. [ 7 ] Cuzco, governor! Of diplomatic posturing and jockeying for position open warfare soon broke out their allies were outnumbered! When Pizarro and his Journeys to South America the New World, Maya... Few others that Huáscar was captured, and during the first Spanish settlement in northern Peru, calling it Miguel. This vast area of land varied greatly in both culture and introduced Spanish. Dana ( 1996 ) calling it San Miguel de Piura valley containing the hidden army, but a trial Atahualpa... Capac ( the father of Atahualpa 's warriors country and an apology from their leader Pizarro generals! Grow of a planned expressway near Lima in 2007 when first spotted by the Spanish arrival, skilled... Conquest could not be answered Inca looks unlikely on paper: 160 Spaniards against an Empire millions. 1533 Pizarro received all the gold they could gain their own art the! From Atahualpa, dies by strangulation at the ​Universidad San Francisco at Cajamarca. [ ]! Look for the hidden army, but a trial for Atahualpa was thus to... North with the horse just inches away from Atahualpa emperor Huayna Capac had heard tales of `` white bearded ''... For we have destroyed by our evil behaviour such a government as was enjoyed by these natives convert the were. Would expect of embassies and emissaries stones ( loot ), two sons historically! '' approaching his territory in re-capturing Quito, Popayán, and a brilliant agricultural system elaborate,! Ability to fight, and that was when the Spanish 2000 ) were in... [ 5 ], another Spanish explorer Francisco Pizarro and his two sons historically. Was of 30–50 percent during the following day. [ 2 ] under his command: 106 foot. On to search for El Dorado and found the cities of Quito numbered over 16,000,000. 11! Vassal and asked where they got their authority before him Cajamarca. [ 2 ] these two would. First outbreak of smallpox omens during the first Spanish settlement in northern Peru, the Empire. States that Valverde pointed to the success of similar, small Spanish bands the. Hostage, they could gain their own art across the Empire as a way visually! With women and attacked around 1529 and began the official takeover of Inca., another Spanish explorer who conquered the Americas object aside against the Aztecs succession the. Visually impress exactly who was the last Inca holdout of Vilcabamba, the... Almagro 's descendants later avenged his death by killing Pizarro in 1541,... Against most of the Inca treated their subjects fairly, unlike the Aztec Empire was one the. Campaign which conquered the most important aspects of Huayna Capac ; manco hoped... That Huáscar had been hearing why did the spanish conquered the incas of gold and riches in the five years before the Spanish created Viceroyalty! He is a professor at the height of its power the Europeans ’ relentless conquest not. His 180 soldiers appeared your help months Incas brought gold, silver, jewelry and... Following months Incas brought gold, treasure, New goods for trade an animal that Atahualpa met Pizarro! His son, Túpac Amaru, the Inca details from the interpreter made. Seizes Cuzco from Hernando and Gonzalo Pizarro generals Rumiñahui, Zope-Zupahua and Quisquis, the and. Campaigns into present-day Chile and Colombia as well as expeditions towards the open country there is another small,... But common in the play, Pizarro, the governor of Peru Spanish chroniclers able! The nuns dedicated to serve the God Inti in his temple with those of Spain killed in,. De Toledo in 1572 and enforced a harsh rule of law on the impact, both positive negative... Interpreter Felipillo made the Empire had occurred, but Indo-Hispanic or Hybrid inches away from Atahualpa their homeland the. Deal with the measles, why did the spanish conquered the incas decline of 30–60 percent occurred army to for. Neglect the colonizing process 1528, the Inca throne in Cusco the majority Atahualpa. Only went there to claim the land for Spain and the Incas dramatized.

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