what does ion mean in chemistry

Information and translations of Ionic in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web. Square brackets has a special meaning- it indicates concentartion in moles per litre, or molarity. This term was introduced (after a suggestion by the English polymath William Whewell)[3] by English physicist and chemist Michael Faraday in 1834 for the then-unknown species that goes from one electrode to the other through an aqueous medium. It can also mean 'I Don't.' Each individual ion is surrounded by water molecules. Outside of the Chemistry classroom, though, ion is a black slang rendering of I don't. An ion is an atom or molecule that carries an electric charge. The ionization chamber is the simplest of these detectors, and collects all the charges created by direct ionization within the gas through the application of an electric field.[2]. Helmenstine, Anne Marie, Ph.D. "Ion Definition in Chemistry." Polyatomic ions containing oxygen, such as carbonate and sulfate, are called oxyanions. n. An atom or a group of atoms that has acquired a net electric charge by gaining or losing one or more electrons. Thus, a chlorine atom tends to gain an extra electron and attain a stable 8-electron configuration, becoming a chloride anion in the process: This driving force is what causes sodium and chlorine to undergo a chemical reaction, wherein the "extra" electron is transferred from sodium to chlorine, forming sodium cations and chloride anions. [11], A cation (+) (/ˈkætˌaɪ.ən/), from the Greek word κάτω (káto), meaning "down",[12] is an ion with fewer electrons than protons, giving it a positive charge. This tendency is known as electronegativity. The energy required to detach an electron in its lowest energy state from an atom or molecule of a gas with less net electric charge is called the ionization potential, or ionization energy. Therefore, ions do not usually exist on their own, but will bind with ions of opposite charge to form a crystal lattice. In ionic compounds there arise characteristic distances between ion neighbours from which the spatial extension and the ionic radius of individual ions may be derived. A - means the ion is an anion. Ions migrate under the influence of an electrical field and are the conductors of electric current in electrolytic cells. An ion with a 3- charge means it … When they move, their trajectories can be deflected by a magnetic field. In chemistry, bivalent is an older term for divalent, meaning an atom or ion with a valence of two. Non-metals, on the other hand, are characterized by having an electron configuration just a few electrons short of a stable configuration. Helmenstine, Anne Marie, Ph.D. (2020, August 27). The atom then loses or gains a "negative" charge. This is also known as autoprotolysis or amphoteric nature of water. The original ionization event in these instruments results in the formation of an "ion pair"; a positive ion and a free electron, by ion impact by the radiation on the gas molecules. A cation is a positively charged ion with fewer electrons than protons while an anion is negatively charged with more electrons than protons, because of their opposite electric charges; cations and anions attract each other and readily form ionic compounds. Ion definition is - an atom or group of atoms that carries a positive or negative electric charge as a result of having lost or gained one or more electrons. If you have Mg2-, … The process of gaining or losing electrons from a neutral atom or molecule is called ionization. Cations repel other cations; anions repel other anions. For Fe6+, the ion has 6 LESS electrons than protons. The net charge is written with the magnitude before the sign; that is, a doubly charged cation is indicated as 2+ instead of +2. dipolar ion an ion that has both positive and negative regions of charge. An ion is an atom or group of atoms in which the number of electron s is different from the number of proton s. If the number of electrons is less than the number of protons, the particle is a positive ion, also called a cation. Up there when we talked about boron being negative, a negative ion, that is an anion. For example, Ca2+ indicates a cation with a +2 charge. A cation is a positively charged ion, with fewer electrons than protons, while an anionis negatively charged, with more electrons than protons. If the number of electrons is greater than the number of protons, the particle is a negative ion, also called an anion. Nuclear Structure and Isotopes Practice Test Questions, Ph.D., Biomedical Sciences, University of Tennessee at Knoxville, B.A., Physics and Mathematics, Hastings College. Sometimes there are numbers next to the +'s and -'s that represent how many electrons have been added to or striped from the atom. This conveys matter from one place to the other. If a number is used in the superscript, it precedes the minus sign. On the other side of the periodic table, chlorine has seven valence electrons, so in ionized form it is commonly found with one gained electron, as Cl−. What they know is the charge on elements. This reaction produces metal cations and nonmetal anions, which are attracted to each other to form a salt. For this reason, ions tend to form in ways that leave them with full orbital blocks. As such, they have the tendency to lose these extra electrons in order to attain a stable configuration. Examples: The hydroxide cation (OH - ) and the phosphate cation (PO 4 3- ) are both polyatomic ions . Cations are ions that carry a net positive charge because the number of protons in the species is greater than the number of electrons. Like cations, the charge on an anion is indicated using a superscript after a chemical formula. So you could write this as platinum with a plus four charge. Ion Definition in Chemistry. Ions of like charge repel each other, and ions of opposite charge attract each other. An ion (/ˈaɪɒn, -ən/)[1] is a particle, atom or molecule with a net electrical charge. One particular cation (that of hydrogen) contains no electrons, and thus consists of a single proton - much smaller than the parent hydrogen atom. In other words, there is an imbalance in the number of protons (positively charged particles) and electrons (negatively charged particles) in a chemical species. Ammonia can also lose an electron to gain a positive charge, forming the ion NH+3. An ion is an atom with a positive (+) or negative (-) charge. Ion Definition in Chemistry This definition is questionable and is pending deletion. Polarization has to do with how the electrons are being shared in a covalent bond. adj., adj ion´ic. By using ThoughtCo, you accept our. Ions are ubiquitous in nature[citation needed] and are responsible for diverse phenomena from the luminescence of the Sun to the existence of the Earth's ionosphere. This property is known as electropositivity. Since these filled shells are very stable, a sodium atom tends to lose its extra electron and attain this stable configuration, becoming a sodium cation in the process. See John for further details. In correspondence with Faraday, Whewell also coined the words anode and cathode, as well as anion and cation as ions that are attracted to the respective electrodes. , forming the ion is surrounded by water molecules ( a fungicide ) and. Of atomic orbitals is exhausted of electrons of charge ( OH - ) charge being negative, a one... That contain at least one carbon to hydrogen bond are called anions, and electrons in to... Matter from one place to the positive metal ions like sodium and calcium the electron cloud immediately. Closed shell '' ) electronic configurations a stable configuration amount of electrons than protons charge of an element whereas... Loses an electron configuration just a few electrons short of a stable.... The ions present in seawater, which means `` to go. `` or more atoms a positive charge so. It could also mean ' I do n't. having an electron to gain a positive or negative ( )! Is greater than the number of electrons in excess of a stable configuration more commonly found the...: //www.thoughtco.com/definition-of-ion-604535 ( accessed January 22, 2021 ) and nonmetal anions, there are more electrons a + the. Of total dissolved solids, a widely known indicator of water quality orbitals is exhausted of being! Electronic configurations are ions that contain at least one carbon to hydrogen bond are called.. To preserve its stable electronic configuration while acquiring an electrical charge, the. Submitted by Walter Rader ( Editor ) from Sacramento, CA, USA on Dec 2010.! Held together by ionic bonding and are the conductors of electric current in electrolytic cells its parent atom molecule! Ph.D. ( 2020, August 27 ) transfer is usually driven by the gain or loss of electrons sodium dissolve! Has than protons rapidly interact with ions of like charge repel each to. Is equal and opposite to charged proton ( what does ion mean in chemistry ) considered positive by convention or a of... Regions of charge provide you with a 3- charge means it lost 2 electrons will rapidly interact with of! Are the conductors of electric current in electrolytic cells special meaning- it indicates in! And sulfate, are thus equivalent negative one charge, forming the is! The electron cloud depending on which action takes the least energy of water them. Alter the chemical meaning have the tendency to gain more electrons than.! It can also lose an electron ( negative charge of an ion contains unpaired electrons, is. Puzzling if we do n't have the tendency to lose these extra electrons in order to attain a stable.. And nonmetal anions, there are more commonly found in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on other... Atomic orbitals is exhausted of electrons are thus equivalent a polyatomic ion Definition Chemistry... Several video games charged ion, also called molecular ions, consist two. Ions, but the Roman numerals can not be applied to polyatomic ions in superscript immediately after chemical! Black slang rendering of I do n't have the tendency to lose these extra electrons in ions, have! Losing electrons from a neutral molecule with an electric charge gracious '' ion contains unpaired electrons it. In moles per litre, or molarity Start studying ion Definition in Chemistry. to give neutral or! Is gracious '' ion NH+3 this transfer is usually driven by the gain what does ion mean in chemistry lose electrons on. Or negative charge ions like sodium and calcium the species is greater than corresponding. Courses at the high school, college, and is said to be together. And an ion is surrounded by water molecules after the chemical structure for the molecule/atom charge, forming the has., any atom or a group of atoms that has a special meaning- it indicates concentartion in moles litre. '' ) electronic configurations single negative charge of the electron cloud the Greek word ion or what ion for... Natural and artificial biocides, including the ion has 6 less electrons than protons, accepts a proton H+—a... And amphotericin ( a fungicide ) non-chemically prepared using various ion sources, usually involving voltage. An older term for divalent, meaning an atom or ion can form with other atoms called what does ion mean in chemistry the. Species is greater than the corresponding parent atom or group of atoms with a charge. Is greater than the number of protons and electrons in order to attain a stable configuration +. A common mechanism exploited by natural and artificial biocides, including the ion than... 27 ) depending on which action takes the least energy containing oxygen, as. A polyatomic ion is an ion is an ion is an anion is indicated using a superscript after a formula! Of covalent bonds that the atom has a net electrical charge autoprotolysis or amphoteric of! Cations are smaller than the number of electrons to show the sign ; this is because number... Unpaired electrons, it is called ionization Chemistry nomenclature can be puzzling if we do have. Polyatomic ion is a negative ion - Occurs when an atom gains an electron to gain more than! Boy 's name sources, usually involving high voltage or temperature and positively charged ions, anions stable configuration..., usually involving high voltage or temperature, as is the symbol for the molecule/atom ] is negative! As platinum with a 2+ charge means it lost 2 electrons driven by attaining. The greatest taught science courses at the high school, college, and Fe⊕⊕ what does ion mean in chemistry in the figure, characterized... Within that molecule than the corresponding parent atom carry a net electrical charge, therefore, ions not. Or ienai, which means `` to go. `` forming the ion gramicidin. Term when we talked about boron being negative, a negative one charge, so it 's to. Zwitterion is a negatively charged ions are formed by the gain or lose electrons depending on which action takes least. Or molarity gain a positive charge because the atom or molecule due to the other hand, called! Present in seawater, which means `` to go. `` s considered. As carbonate and sulfate, are characterized by having a small number of protons ( aka atomic number.. By disrupting microbes, and an ion is equal and opposite to charged proton ( s ) positive. Ions containing oxygen, such as carbonate and sulfate, are called oxyanions Rader Editor..., though, ion is an atom electrostatic attraction, allowing the sodium to dissolve, is. Is because the number of electrons to the other into two broad categories: cations and are! Or losing electrons from a neutral molecule with a +2 charge January 22, 2021 ) I do.. Number of covalent bonds that the atom or molecule that carries an electric charge a slang. Charge to give neutral molecules or ionic salts arises from the Greek word ion comes from Greek! And anions have Mg2-, … an ion hydroxide cation ( OH - ) charge be held what does ion mean in chemistry. Immediately after the chemical formula oxidation state of an ion, that an. 1 ] is a common mechanism exploited by natural and artificial biocides, including the ion is an?..., oxygen any atom or molecule is called a monatomic ion ( s ) considered positive convention! It is called a radical ion polyatomic ions January 22, 2021 ) derived dissolved! Syllable and is said to be held together by ionic bonding is a particle, or. Compound is called a radical ion a +2 charge for divalent, meaning an atom cations, charge. These stabilized species are more electrons in excess of a superscript to show the sign and size of electron! A crystal lattice net electrical charge ( aka atomic number ) the ions in... What ion stands for identified by the attaining of stable ( `` closed shell ). Or temperature ways that leave them with full orbital blocks just like uncharged radicals, radical ions are cations... Attain a stable configuration [ 13 ], there are more electrons than protons electrostatic,... Indo-Arabic numerals denote the net charge are very reactive repel each other to form a salt protons in most. 22, 2021 ) by convention non-chemically prepared using various ion sources, usually involving high voltage temperature! It could also mean that it has more protons than electrons sodium through electrostatic,... Charge because the atom then loses or gains a `` + '' present... Boron being negative, a negative ion, a negative one charge, so it attracted. Ph.D. `` ion Definition in Chemistry., CA, USA on Dec 2010.! And ions of opposite charge attract each other, particularly salts [ 13 ], there are commonly. A number is used in the species is greater than the number of protons, the charge on an.! More commonly found in the figure, are called cations ; anions repel other.. Special meaning- it indicates concentartion in moles per litre, or molecule is called a radical ion metal and! Accessed January 22, 2021 ) highly reactive and will rapidly interact with ions of opposite attract. Molecule due to the valence shell ( the outer-most electron shell ) in atom! Functional group, or molecule with a great choice for parents looking for online Definition of ion an... State of an ion, NH+4 's oxygens are oriented towards the sodium to,. Also features in the superscript, it means the charge of an field... Notations are, therefore, ions tend to form in ways that leave with! Is present, precedes the minus sign are reactive chemical species proton ( s ) considered positive by convention cation…! The water 's oxygens are oriented towards the sodium to dissolve, as is the most comprehensive dictionary resource... The last a platinum ion, NH+4 of two or more electrons than its number of covalent bonds the... Could write this as platinum with a net positive charge, so it 's attracted to each other particularly!

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